Banks are allowed to take measures to protect their loans and to guarantee the value of their investments, such as the requirement. B of guarantees or guarantees from borrowers. The law frees so-called “traditional banking” practices from its illegality, and is therefore aimed less at limiting banks` lending practices than at ensuring fair and competitive practice. A large portion of the BHCA claims are dismissed. Banks still have some leeway to design credit contracts, but if a bank clearly crosses the limits of decency, the complainant is compensated with three damages. For the second year in a row, the European Commission has fined the counter-Google for consecutive abuse of dominance. In the case of Android, the company was condemned for putting in place contractual restrictions that stifled competition in the market. This Android case is very similar to the Apple Store case currently underway (…) A decade ago, “IP and Competition Law” was the hottest ticket in the city of the cartel. The cases decided at the time had it in them: well-known companies, very sophisticated legal issues and authorities that were ready to intervene vigorously in the field of intellectual property law. The loyalty is an often illegal agreement in which the consumer must also buy another product that exists in a separate market. The link falls within the broader legal framework of illegal competition, which was originally censored by the Sherman Antitrust Act and refined in subsequent acts. The distinction between the (illegal) link and the grouping (legal within the borders) is important for businesses. Links are also called “product bindings” or “linked sales.” Introduction The Italian Competition Authority has launched a joint investigation into the big data market, in collaboration with national data communication and protection regulators.
The investigation seems to have a scope and focus not only on competition issues, but also on data protection, on consumers (…) The link law is changing. Although in the past the Supreme Court has treated some linkage points as illegal in itself, the preliminary bodies have begun to apply the more flexible “rule of reason” to assess the competitive impact of tied sales. The cases deal with specific framework conditions, but the general rule is that binding the products raises questions of cartel law when they restrict competition without offering benefits to consumers. On 12 November 2019, the Spanish Competition Authority (CNMC) imposed fines totalling 77 million euros on Spain`s two main television channels, Mediaset and Atresmedia, for imposing uniform branding obligations in their agreements with television advertisers. The CNMC concluded that the two television channels (…) Conglomerate effects occur when a merger has an effect on competition, but the products of merging companies are not in the same product market and are not exits or exits from each other.